Gramatica limbii engleze cu exercitii
CONJUNCTIA  (THE  CONJUNCTION)
    (lat.: conjunctio, con = impreuna; junctio = legatura)
    Este partea de vorbire care leaga in propozitii cuvinte cu aceeasi functie sintactica, sau

 CLASIFICAREA CONJUNCTIILOR

a) conjunctii simple: and, after, but etc.
b) conjunctii compuse: however, unless etc
c) conjunctii corelative: either ... or ...; neither. . . nor; both... and...  ; in order to; as if ; as though
        Dupa functii conjunctiile sunt:
CONJUNCTII COORDONATOARE (COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)
        Conjunctiile coordonatoare leaga parti de propozitie cu aceeasi valoare sintactica sau propozitii de acelasi fel.



CONJUNCTII COPULATIVE (COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)

    and = si, iar
I see a boy and a girl. = Vad un baiat si o fata.
He went home and brought the book. = El a mers acasa si a adus cartea.
    as well as = precum si
He speaks English as well as German. = El vorbeste engleza precum si germana
    both . . . and = atat.... cat si ......
I like both English and German. = Imi place atat engleza cat si germana.
    not only . . . but also = nu numai ... ci si .....
I like not only English but also German. = Imi place nu numai engleza ci si germana.




 CONJUNCTII DISJUNCTIVE (DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS)

        Conjunctiile disjunctive exprima o alternativa.
    either . . . or = sau.... sau ....., fie..... fie....
He can speak either English or German. = El stie sa vorbeasca fie engleza fie germana.
    neither . . . nor = nici.... nici.....
I see neither him nor her. = Nu-l vad nici pe el, nici pe ea.
    otherwise = altfel , altminteri
The book is expensive, otherwise it is very useful. = Cartea este scumpa, altminteri este foarte utila.
    else (if not) = altfel (daca nu), or else = ca/caci altfel, ca daca nu
Hurry up or (else) you will miss the train. = Grabeste-te, (ca) altfel pierzi trenul.



CONJUNCTII ADVERSATIVE (ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)

        Conjunctiile adversative exprima contrastul.
    but = insa, dar;
We want to buy a house but we don't have money. = Vrem sa cumparam o casa dar nu avem bani.
    however = insa, dar totusi
I didn't want to do it, however I did it. = N-am vrut s-o fac, dar am facut-o.
    nevertheless = totusi, cu toate acestea
Mathematics is difficult, nevertheless I like it. = Matematica este grea, totusi imi place.
    still = totusi, insa, dar, cu toate acestea
It is expensive, still I'll buy it. = Este scumpa, totusi o voi cumpara.
    while = whereas = pe cata vreme, in timp ce, pe cand
Your motorcar is old, while/whereas mine is new. = Masina ta este veche, pe cand a mea e/este noua.
    yet (nevertheless) = totusi, cu toate acestea
These goods are expensive, and yet people buy them. = Aceste marfuri sunt scumpe si totusi lumea le cumpara.



CONJUNCTII CONCLUSIVE (ILLATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)
        Conjunctiile conclusive exprima o concluzie.
    accordingly = in consecinta, deci, prin urmare, ca atare
I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it. = Am gasit cartea, de care aveam nevoie si, in consecinta am cumparat-o.
    consequently = in consecinta, asadar, prin urmare
I found the book interesting, consequently I bought it. = Am gasit cartea interesanta, asadar am cumparat-o.
    so = asadar, de aceea, prin urmare, astfel ca, asa ca
I considered the book important, so I bought it. = Am considerat cartea importanta, astfel ca am cumparat-o.
    therefore = astfel cA, deci, de aceea, asadar, prin urmare, in consecinta
I didn't find them in the park, therefore I went home. = Nu i-am gasit in parc, asadar am plecat acasa.




CONJUNCTII CAUZALE (CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS)
    for = caci, pentru ca, intrucat, deoarece, fiindca
It is very hot for it is August. = Este foarte cald caci este august.
        Sunt rare insa cazurile cand se intalnesc in engleza vorbita astfel de exemple/cazuri cu for cauzal.




 CONJUNCTII SUBORDONATOARE (SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)

        Conjunctiile subordonatoare leaga o subordonata de regenta sa.



CONJUNCTII DE LOC (CONJUNCTIONS OF PLACE)

    where = unde
You must come here where I live. = Trebuie sa vii aici unde locuiesc/traiesc eu.
    wherever = oriunde
We'll live wherever it is possible. = Vom trai oriunde va fi posibil.
    as far as = pana unde / la
I shall/will go as far as you go. = Voi merge pana unde mergi tu.
    whence = de unde
I'm going there whence you are coming. = Merg acolo de unde vii tu.




 CONJUNCTII DE TIMP (CONJUNCTIONS OF TIME)

    after = dupa, dupa ce
I came after you had left. = Am venit dupa ce ai plecat tu. = Am venit dupa ce plecasei tu.
    before = inainte de a
I must put down your telephone number before I forget it. = Trebuie sa-mi notez numarul tau de telefon inainte de a-l uita.
    the first time = prima data/oara cand
I realized he was a serious man the first time I saw him. = Mi-am dat seama ca este om serios cand l-am vazut prima data .
    all the time = tot timpul cat
We are laughing all the time we are watching the play. = Radem tot timpul cat privim piesa.
    as long as = cat timp
A man must learn as long as he lives. = Un om trebuie sa invete cat timp traieste.
    as soon as = de indata ce, imediat ce
I must find out the truth as soon as I arrive. = Trebuie sa aflu adevarul imediat ce sosesc.
    since = de cand
I haven't seen him since he was a student. = Nu l-am vazut de cand era el student.
    ever since = chiar de cand
I relized he was a good man ever since I met him. = Mi-am dat seama ca este om bun chiar de cand l-am cunoscut.
    till = until = pana cand, pana ce, pana la, pana sa, pana
You must wait till they come. = Trebuie sa astepti pana vin ei.
    when = cand
I shall tell you everything when you come. = Iti voi povesti totul cand vei veni.
    whenever = ori de cate ori
I realize she is an excellent singer whenever I listen to her. = ]mi dau seama ca este o cantareata desavarsita ori de cate ori o ascult.
    while = cat timp, in timp ce
While there is life, there is hope. = Omul spera cat traieste.
    the moment = in momentul /clipa in care
I recognized him the moment I saw him. = L-am recunoscut in clipa in care l-am vazut.
    the very moment = chiar in momentul/clipa in care
I understood the real state of things the (very) moment I entered their house. = Am inteles adevarata stare a lucrurilor (chiar) in momentul in care am intrat in casa lor.




 CONJUNCTII DE MOD (CONJUNCTIONS OF  MANNER)
        Conjunctiile de mod introduc subordonate modale.
    as = cum, asa cum, dupa cum, intocmai cum, in acelasi fel in care
He talks as he thinks. = Vorbeste  cum gandeste.
He knows many things young as he is. = El stie multe lucruri asa tanar cum este.
    as if  = as though = ca si cand, de parca, parca sa
He opend his mouth as if to say something. = A deschis gura parca sa spuna ceva.
He greeted us as if he knew us. = Ne-a salutat ca si cand ne-ar cunoaste.
    not so . . . as . . . = nu asa de . . . ca . . .
Your house is not so big as I thought. = Casa ta nu este asa mare cum am crezut.
    as . . . as  = la fel de ...ca.., tot asa de ca....
She sang the song as beautifully as she could. = Ea a cantat cantecul cat a putut de frumos.
    so much as  =  asa de mult cat/ca
I do not like tennis so much as he does. = Mie nu-mi place tenisul asa de mult cat lui.
    so far as = in masura in care
You will buy the house so far as you can afford it. = Vei cumpara casa in masura in care iti poti permite.




 CONJUNCTII DE CAUZA (CONJUNCTIONS OF CAUSE)

        Conjunctii de cauza introduc subordonatele cauzale.
    because = for the reason that  = pentru ca, pentru motivul ca , deoarece , intrucat
I bought the ball because it was cheap. = Am cumparat mingea pentru ca era ieftina.
    seeing that = vazand ca
Seeing that it was raining I entered the house. = Vazand ca ploua am intrat in casa.
    since = intrucat, deoarece, caci
Since it is raining, I must take my umbrella. = Intrucat ploua, trebuie sa-mi iau umbrela.
    now that = acum ca, deoarece
Now that I have come I shall/will drink a cup of coffee. = Acum ca am venit, voi bea o ceasca cu cafea.



 CONJUNCTII DE SCOP (CONJUNCTIONS OF  PURPOSE)
        Conjunctiile de scop introduc subordonatele finale.
    in order to/that = cu scopul de a, ca sa
We have come to school in order to learn. = Am venit la scoala ca sa invatam.
    lest (+ should) = ca sa nu
Turn on the light lest you should knock your head against smth. ! = Aprinde lumina ca sa nu te lovesti cu capul de ceva !
    so that = asa incat, ca sa
Turn on the light so that I can see better ! = Aprinde lumina ca sa pot vedea mai bine !




 CONJUNCTII CONCESIVE (CONJUNCTIONS OF CONCESSION)
        Conjunctiile concesive introduc subordonatele concesive.
    though = although = desi, cu toate ca
I shall/will go there although it is late. = Voi merge acolo desi este tarziu.
    even if  = chiar daca
I shall go there even if it is very late. = Voi merge acolo chiar daca este foarte tarziu.
    however (much) = oricat de (mult)
You must buy it however much it costs. = Trebuie s-o cumperi indiferent cat de mult costa.
    no matter how = nu conteaza cat/cum, indiferent cat/cum
You must read it no matter how borring it is.  = Trebuie s-o citesti indiferent cat de plictisitoare este.
Boring as it is you must read it. = Plictisitoare asa cum este trebuie s-o citesti.
    in spite of = in ciuda
He succeeded in spite of all the difficulties that he came across. = El a reusit in ciuda tuturor dificultatilor pe care le-a intampinat.
    in spite of the fact that = in ciuda faptului ca, desi, chiar daca
They failed in spite of their efforts. = Au esuat in ciuda eforturilor lor.
    notwithstanding =  desi, in ciuda/pofida faptului ca
They failed notwithstanding the efforts they made. = Ei au dat gres in ciuda/ pofida eforturilor pe care le-au facut.





 CONJUNCTII CONDITIONALE (CONJUNCTIONS OF CONDITIONAL)
        Conjunctiile conditionale introduc subordonatele conditionale.
    if  = daca
I shall not come if I don't have time. = Nu voi veni daca nu voi avea timp.
    if only = doar/numai daca
I shall come if only I have time. = Voi veni doar daca voi avea timp.
    on condition that = cu conditia ca
I shall come on the condition that I have time. = Voi veni cu conditia ca voi avea timp.
    provided that  = cu conditia ca
I shall come provided that I have time. = Voi veni cu conditia ca voi avea timp.
    if and only if  = daca si numai daca
I shall come if and only if I have time. = Voi veni daca si numai daca voi avea timp.
    as long as = atat timp cat, daca
I shall not give you the money as long as you don't tell me the truth. = Nu-ti voi da banii atata timp cat nu-mi vei spune adevarul.
    but = daca nu
But for John, I would have gone. = Daca n-ar fi fost John as fi mers.
unless = daca nu
I shall not give you the money unless you  tell me the truth. = Eu nu-ti voi da banii daca nu-mi vei spune adevarul.




 CONJUNCTII CONSECUTIVE (CONJUNCTIONS OF  RESULT)
        Conjunctiile consecutive introduc subordonatele consecutive.
    so . . . that . . . = asa de . . . incat . . ., that = incat/ca;
I lent you the book so that you could read it.  = ti-am imprumutat cartea ca s-o poti citi.
    such . . . that . . . = asa/astfel de . . . incat/ca . . .
Such was the force of the wind that we could not stand. = Asa mare era forta vantului ca noi  nu puteam sta in picioare.




 CONJUNCTII ATRIBUTIVE (ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS)

        Conjunctile atributive introduc subordonatele atributive sau relative.
    that = care, pe care, de care (pentru persoane si lucruri)
This is the book that I need. = Aceasta este cartea de care am eu nevoie.
He is the man that/who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoaste pe noi.
    who (pronume relativ) = care
He is the man who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoaste.
    whose = al, a, ai, ale cui/carui/carei/caror
He is the playwright whose plays are eternal. = El este dramaturgul ale carui piese sunt eterne.
    to whom = who(m) . . . to = caruia, careia, carora
The boy, to whom I must give this book, is my friend. = The boy, who(m) I must give this book to, is my friend. = Baiatul, caruia eu trebuie sa-i dau aceasta carte, este prietenul meu.
    whom / that = pe care (pentru persoane)
The boys, whom/that you see, are John's friends. = Baietii, pe care ii vezi, sunt prietenii lui John.
    which / that  = care, pe care (pentru lucruri)
The house, which/that you see, is mine. = Casa, pe care o vezi, este a mea.




 CONJUNCTII SUBIECTIVE ( SUBJECT CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS)

        Conjunctiile subiective introduc subordonatele subiective.
    that = ca
That we have to work hard is a necessity. = Ca trebuie sa muncim mult este o necesitate.
    who = cine, care
Who knows the truth is not here. = Cine stie adevarul nu este aici.
    what = ce
What I like is not to be found here. = Ce-mi place mie nu se gaseste aici.
    when = cand
When he comes depends on the weather. = Cand vine el depinde de vreme.
    why = de ce, din ce cauza
Why he has come is a mystery. = De ce a venit el este un mister.
    what . . . for = for what = pentru ce
For what he has come is a mystery. = Pentru ce a venit el este un mister.
    how = cum
How he has done it is a mystery. = Cum a facut-o este un mister.
    where = unde
Where we shall go is a mystery. = Unde vom merge este un mister.
    wherever = oriunde
Wherever we went would be a mystery/secret. = Oriunde am merge ar fi un mister/secret.
    whenever = ori de cate ori
Whenever we went would be a mystery. = Ori de cate ori am merge ar fi un mister.
    whose = al, a, ai, ale
Whose this book is is a mystery. = A cui este aceasta carte este un mister.
    what kind / sort of  = ce fel de
What kind / sort of man he is is a mystery. = Ce fel de om este el este un mister.
    which = care
Which book I must buy is a mystery. = Care carte trebuie s-o cumpar este un mister.
    which of = care dintre
Which of us will travel by train is a secret. = Care dintre noi va calatori cu trenul este secret.




CONJUNCTII COMPLETIVE (OBJECT CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS)

    that = ca
You did not tell me that you would come earlier. = Nu mi-ai spus ca vei veni mai devreme.
        Conjunctia that se poate omite:  I knew you were very busy. = Stiam ca esti foarte ocupat.



 ALTE CUVINTE DE LEGATURA
    for instance = for example = de exemplu/pilda
    one = o data
One, you would have more spare time. = O data, ai avea mai mult timp liber.
    two = doi, in al doilea rand
Two, you would be better paid. = Doi, ai fi mai bine platit.
Secondly, and far more importantly . . . = In al doilea rand, si mult mai important . . .
    and to conclude . . .= si in incheiere
    first / firstly = in primul rand, mai intai
    second / secondly = in al doilea rand
    third / thirdly = in al treilea rand
    to conclude = in incheiere / concluzie
    for a start = pentru inceput
I want to begin by saying that. = Vreau sa incep prin a spune (spunand) ca.
Another thing is that . . . = Alt lucru este ca . . .
Which is far more important. = Care este cu mult mai important.
There is still another thing. = Mai este inca un lucru.
The final thing I must say is . . . = Ultimul lucru pe care trebuie sa-l spun este . . .
The second/third reason is . . . = Al doilea/treilea motiv este . . .
Also, it's not . . . = De asemenea, nu este . . .
You didn't read that book. = I didn't read it either. = Neither did I. = Tu nu ai citit cartea aceea. = Nici eu n-am citit-o.
"You  are  in  a  hurry."  "Indeed  we  are." =  – Voi  va grabiti. Ne grabim, intr-adevar; –  Da, asa este;  – Sigur ca da.
That reminds me of . . . = Asta imi aminteste de . . .
By the way. = By the by. = Apropo.
In a word, briefly. = Intr-un cuvant, pe scurt.
My conclusion is that . . . = Concluzia mea este ca . . .
That is. = That is to say. = Adica
This is another way of putting it. = Aceasta este un alt fel/mod de a-l spune/ exprima.
Such an example would be . . . = Un astfel de exemplu ar fi
As a result...= consequently... = Ca urmare; in consecinta...
The consequence was that . . . = Consecinta/urmarea a fost ca . . .
The consequence of his being late was that . . . = Consecinta/urmarea intarzierii lui a fost ca . . .
    in other words = cu alte cuvinte
    in that case = in cazul acela
    if so = daca e asa
    if not = daca nu
    I would rather say = as spune/zice mai degraba
    a way of putting it = un fel de a spune
    a better way of putting it = un fel mai bun de a zice
    It would be better to . . . = Ar fi mai bine sa. ….
    on the one hand / side = pe de o parte; on the other hand / side  = pe de alta parte
    on the contrary = dimpotriva
    by contrast = prin contrast
Of course, he . . .= Desigur, el . . .
He is , of course.... = El este, desigur...
    it is true that = este adevarat ca
There is little doubt about that. = Este putina indoiala in privinta aceasta/aceea.
There is no doubt about that. = Nu este nici o indoiala in acest sens.
The truth is that . . . = Adevarul este ca . . .
He will even read it. = El o va si citi. = El chiar o va citi.
"He likes to spend his holidays at the seaside". "So do we". = Lui ii place sa-si petreaca vacanta la mare. – Si noua.
"We are at the seaside". "So am I". = – Noi suntem la mare. – Si eu.
"He can speak French". "So can we". = – El stie sa vorbeasca frantuzeste. – Si noi.
"He cannot speak French". "Neither can we"; "We can't either". = – El nu stie sa vorbeasca frantuzeste. – Nici noi.
    the first reason = primul motiv, prima cauza
    the first suggestion = prima sugestie
He feels so bad today. = El se simte asa (de) rau azi/astazi.
I do not feel that bad. = Eu nu ma simt asa (de) rau.
I expected it to be this big. = M-am asteptat sa fie asa de mare.
    in the same way as  = in acelasi fel ca
    much similar to = mult asemanator cu
The girl other than Jane. = Alta fata decat Jane; Alta fata in afara de Jane.
Cauta