Gramatica limbii engleze cu exercitii

 Substantivul

 

ATENTIE: In engleza, toate propozitiile trebuie sa aiba subiect. Subiectul poate fi un substantiv sau un pronume.

 

A. Genul.


   1. Cele mai multe substantive au aceeasi forma pentru toate genurile:

friend, child, doctor, cousin, baby, teenager, artist, cook, dancer, driver, teacher

Genul poate fi indicat de un pronume insotitor:

My friend sent her son a present. (“friend” este de genul feminin)

The doctor opened his bag. (“doctor” este un barbat)

Child si baby pot fi considerate neutre:

The baby closed its eyes and fell asleep.

Numele de tari sunt si ele considerate neutre:

Lately,
Kenya has greatly improved its economy.

 

2. Multe substantive care denumesc oameni si animale au o forma feminina si una masculina:

son, daughter nephew, niece  uncle, aunt

actor, actress waiter, waitress           gentleman, lady

father, mother             husband, wife man, woman

male, female    bull, cow                      hero, heroine

 

   3. genul poate fi indicat combinand substantive fara gen cu: boy, girl, male, female, man, woman, he-, she-.

boyfriend, girlfriend                           male pilot, female pilot

man dentist, woman dentist   policeman, policewoman

 

NOTA: In incercarea de a elimina “discriminarea de gen” (gender discrimination) exista o tendinta de a inlocui “terminatiile” man si woman cu person sau de a le elimina complet. In alte cazuri au fost create alte expresii sau alte cuvinte lipsite de gen.

salesman, saleswoman → salesperson

chairman, chairwoman → chairperson sau chair

steward, stewardess  → flight attendant

 





(he = el)

(she = ea)

boy friend = prieten

girl friend = prietena

brother - in - law = cumnat

sister - in - law = cumnata

bull = taur

cow = vaca

cock = cocos

hen = gaina

dog = caine

bitch = catea

drake = ratoi

duck = rata

father - in - law = socru

mother - in - law = soacra

fisherman = pescar

- 

fox = vulpoi

vixen = vulpe

gipsy/gypsy = tigan

gipsy/gypsy woman = tiganca

grandson = nepot

granddaughter = nepoata

horse = cal

mare = iapa

host = gazda

hostess = gazda

lion = leu

lioness = leoaica

lord = domn

lady = doamna

man-servant = servitor

maid - servant = servitoare

Mr. = domnul

Miss/Mrs. = domnisoara/doamna

negro = negru

negress = negresa

ox = bou

cow = vaca

peasant = taran

peasant woman = taranca

pirate = pirat

-

postman = postas

-

schoolboy = scolar

schoolgirl = scolarita

soldier = soldat

-

son - in - law = ginere

daughter - in - law = nora

steward = stevard

stewardess = stevardesa

tom cat = pisoi

pussy cat = pisica

turkey cock = curcan

turkey hen = curca

usher = plasator

usherette = plasatoare

waiter = chelner

waitress = chelnerita


B. Numarul.

B.1. Substantivele numarabile – se pot numara, adica au numar. Pot avea atat forme de singular cat si de plural. La plural avem urmatoarele forme:

   1. la majoritatea substativelor se adauga -s formei de singular:

book, books                 day, days         house, houses

donkey, donkeys          handkerchief, handkerchiefs

 

   2. substantivele in o, ch, sh, s sau x primesc -es:

potato, potatoes          church, churches         brush, brushes

bus, buses                    box, boxes                   kiss, kisses

 

   3. substantivele terminate in consoana + y pierd pe y si primesc -ies:

baby, babies    factory, factories        fly, flies

 

NOTA: Exista exceptii:

kilo, kilos                     photo, photos piano, pianos

radio, radios                soprano, sopranos

 

   4. unele substantive elimina -f/fe de la final si primesc -ves:

calf, calves                  wife, wives           wolf, wolves       loaf, loaves

half, halves                  leaf, leaves          life, lives               shelf, shelves

thief, thieves                knife, knives     self, selves

 

   5. unele substantive isi modifica vocalele:

foot, feet                      tooth, teeth                 goose, geese

man, men                    woman, women

mouse, mice    louse, lice

*child, children           person, people

 

   6. unele substantive au aceeasi forma la singular si la plural:

sheep, trout, deer, aircraft, fish (RAR: fishes) trout, salmon, series, species, means, headquarters

 

   7. unele substantive exista numai la forma de plural:

clothes, pants, pyjamas, scissors, eyeglasses, scales, stairs, savings, earnings, belongings, outskirts, wages, premises, surroundings, archives, customs, police, the Middle Ages

 

   8. unele substantive imprumutate pastreaza pluralul grecesc, italian sau latin:

crisis, crises                 cactus, cacti                phenomenon, phenomena

datum, data                 libretto, libretti            fungus, fungi

nucleus, nuclei             stimulus, stimuli          criterion, criteria

basis, bases                 thesis, theses   oasis, oases

axis, axes                    medium, media            bacterium, bacteria

 

NOTA: Engleza moderna foloseste adesea data, media, bacteria cu sens plural, dar cu un verb la singular.

The latest data is highly encouraging.

 

   9. numele de familie se pot folosi la plural pentru a indica intreaga familie. Numelui i se adauga un -s. Nu au loc schimbari de ortografie:

The Kennedys are world-famous.

 

  10. Substantivele colective se refera la un grup de oameni sau lucruri. Sunt in mod normal folosite la singular. In engleza britanica (Br.E.) se pot folosi atat cu verbe la singular cat si la plural. In engleza americana (Am.E.) au intotdeauna un verb la singular. Iata o lista de substantive colective uzuale:

family, aristocracy, nobility, government, enemy, proletariat, press, opposition, jury, community, army, audience, crew, staff, team, committee, public

 

NOTA: Ocazional substantivele colective sunt folosite la plural si sunt numarabile.

Romeo and Juliet came from two feuding families.

The governments of Israel and Egypt agreed to sign the treaty.

Only two teams can get to the finals.

 

B.2. Substantivele nenumarabile – NU pot fi numarate, adica nu au numar. De obicei au numai forma de singular. Se impart in urmatoarele categorii:

   1. substantive concrete:

water               wood               metal               paper

grass                glass                oil                    silver

gold                 sand                 snow                rain

bread               milk                 coffee butter

wine                 fire                   food                 salt

 

   2. substantive abstracte:

love                 beauty             hope                relief

experience       advice purity               joy

freedom           information     courage           design

duty                 capacity           education        evil

time                 patience           reality              intelligence

 

NOTA: Work este nenumarabil, dar job este numarabil.

Harriet is looking for work. James has two jobs.

Works inseamna: fabrica, parte mecanica, productie literara, fapte sau acte.

Mother Teresa of Calcutta is known for her good works.

My father has the complete works of Victor Hugo in his library.

The steel works are down the road.

 

ATENTIE: Iata cateva substantive nenumarabile in engleza care in alte limbi se pot deseori numara:

advice, baggage, luggage, furniture, damage, hair, shopping, homework, information, knowledge, money, weather, research, progress, business, spaghetti, news

 

   3. substantive verbale (verbe in ING): camping, dancing, shopping, jogging, singing etc.

Smoking is bad for your health.

The town council does not permit parking on this street.

 

   4. nume de limbi: German, English, Chinese, Italian, Spanish etc.

You speak excellent English.

 

   5. unele nume de boli, stiinte si jocuri au forma de plural, dar in mod normal primesc un verb la singular. Sunt considerate nenumarabile: measels, mumps, dominoes, physics, politics, ethics, acoustics, statistics, mathematics, news, eletronics etc.

Politics does not interest me.

The latest news is quite encouraging.

Mathematics is an important subject. DAR: His mathematics were all wrong. (NU stiinta, si calculele)

 

ATENTIE: Substativele nenumarabile nu sunt niciodata precedate de expresii de numar (a, an, one, two, three etc.). Iata cateva expresii folosite pentru a indica numarul/cantitatea:

    * a piece of information / furniture / advice / equipment / glass / paper / news
    * a type of atmosphere / behaviour / violence
    * an item of luggage / baggage / news
    * a case of mumps / measels / flu
    * a ray of hope / sunshine
    * a lot of strength / security

 

C. Adjective folosite ca substantive – se foloseste THE + adjectiv pentru:

   1. grupuri de persoane cu aceleasi caracteristici. Urmeaza un verb la plural:

The injured were taken away by helicopter.

The rich are not always as happy as we imagine.

 

   2. calitate impersonala. Urmeaza un verb la singular:

The impossible has strong attraction for some people.

 

   3. nationalitate (daca nu exista un cuvant separat):

the French, the Chinese, the English, the Japanese, the Irish

DAR: the Poles, the Germans, the Romanians, the Finns

 

D. Substantive compuse. Ele pot fi:

   1. scrise ca un singur cuvant, cuvinte separate sau cu cratima. Daca aveti indoieli, cel mai bine e sa consultati intotdeauna dictionarul:

armchair         can opener      one-way street

 

   2. numarabile sau nenumarabile:

alarm clock                             fast food

compact disk               human race

tooth brush                              drinking water

waiting room                           welfare state

yellow pages                pocket money

 

   3. compuse din doua substantive. Primul substantiv este folosit ca adjectiv si este la singular:

chain factory (a factory for chains)

cotton skirt (a skirt made of cotton)

a ten-year-old girl (a girl who is ten years old)

car accident (an accident involving cars)

 

   4. substantivele compuse numarabile formeaza pluralul aplicand regulile normale de plural ultimului substantiv:

mail boxes       sleeping bags   t-shirts

 

NOTA: Uneori, dar rar, substantivele la plural pot fi folosite ca adjective:

sports car, customs department, clothes store, sales division, savings bank, news item

 

   5. substantivele compuse formate din verbe complexe sau substantive legate cu of si in au plurale neregulate:

passers-by       runners-up       sisters-in-law

 

E. Posesia – OF si genitivul sintetic.

   1. in multe cazuri folosim of pentru a exprima posesia. Substantivele, folosite ca adjective, pot si ele uneori indica posesia:

door of the car                                    car door

frame of the picture                            picture frame

headquarters of the company             company headquarters

the colour of the wall              the wall colour

 

NOTA: Adjectivele nu au numar. Substantivele care devin adjective sunt la singular:

the tops of the boxes   the box tops

 

   2. genitivul sintetic – in cazul persoanelor si animalelor folosim genitivul sintetic pentru a exprima posesia:


‘s

- toate substantivele singulare

- substantivele plurale care NU se termina in -s

-substantive plurale terminate in -s

Nancy’s, James’s

his mother’s

my children’s

the teachers’

the Gallaghers’

his sisters’

 

 

 

 

Exercitii:

1.Formati pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:

cat, roof, steamer, table, man, pilot, dog, woman, lily, clock, toy, child


2. Inlocuiti substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:

the girl ---
the dog ---
the actor ---
the schoolboy ---
the pencil ---
the grandmother ---

3. Alcatuiti cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte:

dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl, board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand.

4. Traduceti in limba engleza:

1. Am un frate.

2. Tu ai o sora.

3. Avem multe jucarii.

4. Copiii fac mult zgomot.

5. Ai un frate?

6. Avem cinci copii.

7. Ai multi copii?
8. Ei au trei baieti si doua fete.

9. Baiatul meu citeste o multime de carti.

 

 

 

 

 

1.      Raspunsuri:


1.Formati pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:

cats, roofs, ateamers, tables, man, pilots, dogs, women, lilies, clocks, toys, children

 

 

 

2. Inlocuiti substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:

the girl --- she
the dog --- it
the actor --- he
the schoolboy --- he
the pencil --- it
the grandmother --- she

3. Alcatuiti cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte:

dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl, board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand.

dining-room; schoolgirl; classmate; kinder-garden; blackboard; grandfather; living-room; notebook; grandparents; schoolboy

 

 

4. Traduceti in limba engleza:

 

1.   I have a brother.

2.      You have a sister.

3.      We have a lot of toys.

4.      Children make a lot of noise.

5.      Have you a brother?

6.      We have five children.

7.      Have you many children?

8.

Cauta