Gramatica limbii engleze cu exercitii
Articolele A/AN si THE

A. Forma – in engleza articolele au doua forme: nehotarat A sau AN si hotarat THE. Articolele sunt invariabile si nu au gen.

 

   1. A se foloseste in fata cuvinteleor cu sunet consonantic, chiar daca prima litera e o vocala. AN se foloseste in fata cuvintelor care incep cu vocalasau h mut. Ambele se pot folosi numai cu substantive numarabile (countable) la singular:

a dog                           a computer

a woman                      a university (sunet consonantic)

a house                        an hour (h mut)

a building                      a European (sunet consonantic)

an orange                     an actor

an idea                         an organization

 

   2. THE se foloseste in fata oricarui substantiv numarabil (countable) sau nenumarabil (uncountable), atat la singular cat si la plural:

the dog                        the dogs

the computer                the computers

the atmosphere the universities

the house                     the oil

the eggs                       the infomation

 

B. Utilizare – A sau AN.

 

   1. inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data:

I’ve received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US.

After months of searching, my brother found a job.

The Jacksons live in a bungalow.

 

   2. pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva, inclusiv slujbe sau profesii:

My neighbour is a sociologist and his wife is an architect.

Jenny doesn’t eat meat; she’s a vegetarian.

There is a man at the door who says he is a detective.

That was a kind thing to say.

 

   3. dupa verbul be sau alte verbele copulative, cand dupa ele urmeaza locutiuni prepozitionala sau propozitii relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva:

I read an interesting article about pollution in yesterday’s paper.

Jack’s son is a talented artist.

He studied law at University and became a judge.

I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home.

John Smith wrote an interesting article on Education in the ‘Times’ yesterday.

 

   4. cu unele expresii numerice insemnand “unu” sau su expresii ale pretului, vitezei, raportului si cantitatii:

A hundred guests were invited.

Petrol costs £ 1.50 a litre in England.

He’s crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour.

You must take this medicine four times a day if you want to get better.

There was a great deal of noise coming form the house next door.

 

   5. cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii, a face afirmatii generale, exclamatii sau cand ne exprimam dorinte:

A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms.

A house built of stone is stronger than a house built of wood.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (proverb)

Wow! What a pretty girl walked by just now.

I’d like a nice cool glass of beer.

 

C. Utilizare – THE.

 

   1. inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural numarabil pentru a face o noua referire la ceva ce  a fost deja sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie:

He wanted to go to the bank to change some money, but all the banks were on strike.

Dave had a nasty accident when he was young. You can still see the scar.

Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together?

 

   2. pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume:

The American economy is suffering at the moment.

The people I work with are very friendly.

I don’t like the president of that company.

 

   3. in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri:

I don’t feel well. Can you call the doctor? (= medicul personal)

The kids aren’t at home. (= proprii tai copii)

Can you pass me the butter, please? (= untul de pe aceasta masa)

Shall I drive the car? (= aceasta masina)

Maria Callas sang so beautifully that the audience threw flowers onto the stage. (= publicul care o urmarea a aruncat flori pe scena pe care canta ea)

 

   4. cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut:

The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

The weather at the North Pole is very cold.

The President of the United States visited the Pope last May.

 

   5. in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. In acest caz NU este nevoie de substantiv:

Only the strong survive. (= oamenii puternici in general)

The question of the unemployed came up again.

Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor.

 

   6. in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni, animale sau obiecte:

The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant.

The dolphin is said to be a very intelligent animal.

Henry Ford invented the automobile.

The customer is always right.

 

   7. inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice, nume de mari si rauri, lanturi muntoase, grupuri de insule, nume la plural de tari si deserturi:

the Middle East, the North of England, the Ivory Coast

the Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, the English Channel, the River Thames, the Straits of Gibraltar

the Himalayas, the Alps, the Carpathians

the Hawaiian Islands, the Falklands

the United States of America, the Netherlands, the Philippines

the Arizona Desert, the Mojave Desert

 

NOTA: THE nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati.

Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland.

 THE nu se foloseste cu nume de lacuri.

Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, Lake Ontario

 

   8. in fata numelor de instruente muzicale:

Rachmaninov began to play the piano when he was only 4 years old.

The guitar has always been my favourite instrument.

 

   9. in fata unor adjective – nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara. Aici se foloseste un verb la plural:

The Swiss have decided not to join the EU.

The Spanish are doing very well in this year’s Olympics.

 

NOTA: In anumite cazuri, se pot folosi numai substantive la plural.

The Germans were upset about losing the WW II.

The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship.

 

  10.  inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale:

Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.

Laura is the most beautiful in my class.

That is the silliest thing I have ever heard.

 

NOTA: Uneori numeralele oridinale pot fi folosite fara THE atunci cand se face referire la ordinea in care se petrec evenimentele.

Brendan came first ad Colin second at 100 meters.

We went to Manhattan first, then on to Brooklyn.

 

D.  Utilizare – NU se foloseste articolul.


 

   1. in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie generala (adesea precedate de determinanti ca: some, any, a piece of, a lot of etc.):

Water quenches thirst on a hot day.

Pollution in big cities is very worrying.

Dogs make good companions.

There is some luggage to be taken upstairs.

Is there any bread in the kitchen?

 

   2. in fata substativelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, knowledge, intelligence etc.; cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat:

Knowledge comes to us through our senses. DAR: She got the job because she has a knowledge of English.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. DAR: What a beauty!

 

   3. in fata substantivelor proprii, nume de persoane si numele unei companii, cu exceptia situatiilor cand se vorbeste de familie ca un tot:

He works for Microsoft.

Helen and George Parker are coming to dinner tonight. DAR: The Parkers are coming to dinner tonight.

 

   4. pentru a vorbi despre sporturi, in fata numelor de echipe etc:

He loves football and supports Manchester Utd.

 

   5. inaintea meselor zilei:

Where did you have breakfast / lunch / dinner?

 

   6. inaintea cuvintelor home, church, university, prison, hospital, market etc. atunci cand ele reprezinta o institutie sau o idee generala. THE se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul respectiv:

Al Capone was arrested and put in prison for tax evasion. (ne referim nu la o anumita inchisoare, ci la institutie)

His mother went to the prison once a week to visit him. (aici ne referim la acea inchisoare unde se afla Al Capone)

My mother goes to church every Sunday. (biserica in sensul de institutie, serviciu religios)

She sometimes goes to the church near the Royal Palace. (acea biserica anume).

Our University is 150 years old. (institutia universitatii)

Emma and Ben often go to the university to talk to their professor. (la o universitate anume, in cladirea ei)




Exercitii:

1. Completati cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:

___ woman
___ unit
___ United States of America
___ Johnsons
___ elephant
___ beauty
___ hour
___ Thames

2. Completati propozitiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an:

a) ___ old woman laughed at him.
b) ___ cat and ___ dog were in the kitchen.
c) I saw ___ elephant at the zoo.
d) It was ___ excellent movie.
e) She watched ___ TV show

3. Completati cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:

Daniel is ___ teacher. He likes ___ Physics very much. He teaches at ___ Theoretical Highschool from ___ Bucharest. ___pupils like him very much. One day, he decided to take ___ children to see ___ laboratory from another highschool. There, they made ___ experiment. All ___ children considered ___ experiment ___ most interesting they have ever made.




Rezolvari:
1. Completati cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:

a woman
an unit
The United States of America
The Johnsons
an elephant
a beauty
an hour
The Thames

2. Completati propozitiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an:

a) An old woman laughed at him.
b) A cat and a dog were in the kitchen.
c) I saw an elephant at the zoo.
d) It was an excellent movie.
e) She watched a TV show

3. Completati cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:

Daniel is a teacher. He likes the Physics very much. He teaches at a Theoretical Highschool from the Bucharest. The pupils like him very much. One day, he decided to take the children to see a laboratory from another highschool. There, they made an experiment. All the children considered the experiment the most interesting they have ever made.
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