Gramatica limbii engleze cu exercitii

Adjectivul

Adjectivele in limba engleza au urmatoarele caracteristici:
a)    prezinta aceeasi forma la singular si la plural
b)    se aseaza intotdeauna inaintea substantivului

exemplu: a red geranium – o muscata rosie
               some red geraniums – niste muscate rosii
               this geranium is red – aceasta muscata este rosie

Egalitatea – se exprima cu ajutorul constructiei as….as
As white as snow – tot atat de alb ca si zapadaas tall as his brother – tot atat de inalt ca si fratele lui

Neegalitatea – se exprima cu ajutorul constructiei not so….as
Not so quick as electricity – nu tot atat de rapid ca electricitatea

Gradele de comparatie care arata superioritatea

Pozitiv

Comparativ

Superlativ

short

shorter (than)

the shortest (of all)

big

bigger (than)

the biggest (of all)

gay

gayer (than)

the gayest (of all)

easy

easier (than)

the easiest (of all)




Gradele de comparatie care arata inferioritatea

-    pentru adjectivele scurte se foloseste in mod curent constructia not so……as, iar pentru superlativ se cauta de obicei un echivalent contrar
not so big as. The smallest off all.
-    pentru adjectivele lungi se foloseste less la comparativ si least la superlativ
-    less important (than). The least important (off all)


Gradele de comparatie ale punctelor cardinale

Northern            more northern    northernmost
Southern       more southern    southernmost
Eastern           more eastern        easternmost
Western       more western    westernmost

Nu au grade de comparatie:

-    superior; inferior; junior; senior; ,major; minor;
-    divine; excellent; fantastic; magic; remote; perfect; splendid; supreme; wonderfull

Superlativul absolut – se construieste in limba engleza cu: bvery, most
Very interesting, most interesting – foarte interesant



A.    Tipuri de adjective


• opinion adjectives (adjective de opinie): descriu ceea ce credem despre cineva sau ceva.

Exemple: beautiful, great, nice, expensive, cheap, ugly etc.

• fact adjectives (adjective de fapt): descriu ceea ce fiintele sau obiectele determinate sunt cu adevarat

Exemple: short, large, long, green, round etc.

! Adjectivele de opinie stau inaintea adjectivelor de fapt



B.    Adjectivul demonstrativ


Desemneaza fiinte sau lucruri pe care le aratam precizand in acelasi timp apropierea sau departarea in timp sau spatiu.

Forme:
• singular:
- this (acest, aceasta)
- that (acel, acea)

• plural:
- these (acesti, aceste)
- those (acei, acele)


Exemple:
This man is a doctor.
That girl is a pupil.
These children are small.
Those boys are playing in the scoolyard.


C. Adjectivul posesiv

Desemneaza raportul de posesie dintre un posesor si ceea ce acesta poseda:

Forme:
• singular:
- my (meu, mea, mei, mele)
- your (tau, ta, tai, tale)
- his (lui, sau, sa, sai, sale)
- her (ei, sau, sa, sai, sale)
- its (lui, ei, sau, sa, sai, sale)

• plural:
- our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre)
- your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre)
- their (lor)

Exemple:
This is my house.
It is his car.
That is our shop.
Those are your books.

Adjective neregulate:

good – better – the best
Bun – mai bun – cel mai bun

bad – worst – the worst
rau  - mai rau – cel mai rau

little – less – the least
mic – mai mic – cel mai mic

much – more – the most
mult – mai mult – cel mai mult

old – older – the oldest
batran – mai batran – cel mai batran

far – farther – the farthest
departe – mai departe – cel mai departe

near – nearer – the nearest
apropiat – mai apropiat – cel mai apropiat



Exercitii:
1.    Completati spatiile goale cu adjectivul posesiv corespunzator
Betty plays with ……sister.
You are in……….garden with………brothers.
He learns…………lessons every day.
I write……..lessons.
Name is a word;…………first letter is “n”.

2.    Traduceti in limba engleza:

1.    Casa noastra e in mijlocul unei gradini;
2.    Aveti multe carti in biblioteca voastra?
3.    Fratele meu lucreaza la un spital
4.    Elena si Emilia traiesc in aceeasi casa.
5.    Vad doi oameni in gradina.
6.    Eu petrec multe ore in biblioteca.
7.    Petre si victor sun lucratori buni.
8.    Imi place casa lor.
9.    Ei sunt acolo in gradina cu prietenii lor.
10.    Vreau sa cumpar cateva rosii.
11.    El mananca foarte putin.
12.    Vad putine carti pe masa.
13.     Da-mi cateva carti.
14.    Numai cativa dintre copii erau acolo
15.    Nu prea am timp.


Raspunsuri:
     1. Completati spatiile goale cu adjectivul posesiv corespunzator
her; my,my sau your, yours etc; his; my; its


2. Traduceti in limba engleza:

1.Our house is in the middle of a garden.
2. Have you (got)many books in your library?
3. My brother works in a hospital.
4. Helen and Emily live in the same house.
5. I see two men in the garden.
6. I spend a lot of hours in the library.
7. Peter and Victor are good workers.
8. I like their house.
9.They are there in the garden with their friends.
10. I want to buy a few tomatos.
11. He eats little.
12. I see few books n the table.
13. Give me â few books.
14. Only a few of the children were there.
15. I have little time.

Cauta